The midgame is perhaps the hardest stage in the game of Xiangqi. It is the defining stage of a player's skill.

The opening in Xiangqi has been studied to such an extent that there are basically patterns and formations to follow. Like in International chess, there are classical openings, orthodox openings, unorthodox openings. All these terms mean that there has been extensive study for each opening and more or less, you know whether you have gained initiative or are on the losing side. All you have to do is just to pick up a book on a certain opening and you will have a rough idea of how your opening has fared.
The same goes for the endgame in Xiangqi. There are many scenarios with definite end results, if you know how to attack or defend that is.
It is totally different for the midgame though. You can study certain formations in the openings and endgames, but it is nearly impossible to do so for midgames. To study the midgame, you have to study strategy and tactics to formulate your own game plan. And the reasons why I have delayed writing this section are:
1) my own level of Xiangqi is not that good. I can only present to you what others have done.
2) there have not been very decent translations of these tactical terms in English
3) you have to have some understanding of the Chinese culture to understand the tactics or strategy involved
4) there are very limited books in Chinese focusing on the midgame (I have less than 20 books solely discussing the midgame). Other than the free ebook found at the World Xiangqi Federation, I have never seen any other book in English discussing the midgame.
5) a lot midgame study is seen as a continuation of the study on a particular opening…you never even know that you were studying the midgame... 
6) in many instances, one move might contain elements of 2 or more different tactics such that it is impossible to classify the tactic used. For example, you make use of a sacrifice to threaten to kill while luring an enemy's chess piece away from a defensive position...which tactic should this be classified as?

After much consideration, I have decided to base this section primarily on the free ebook “ Xiangqi Basic Tactics” available for download by the World Xiangqi Federation. The English in the book is readable but I believe that people who are not familiar with the Chinese language or culture might have some trouble understanding some of the ideas put forth. Also, I think that I might be able to come up with better terms for in English..

To my knowledge, I think that this is the first ever English website discussing this topic. I will need help translating the different tactics used and I am sure I will have to rewrite this section over many times. If you have ANY better translations for the tactics in English, please tell me ASAP by emailing me at or . I do not wish to rewrite this section a million times.  

1. General Recommendations for Midgame play from GM Liu Dianzhong    
2. Basic Midgame Tactics
3. Selected midgames played, based primarily on a column by GM Zhang GuoFeng and other books and articles I have come across.
4. How to Get Out of Trouble by Master Shang Wei (ref 10). recommended
5. Basics of XiangQi Tactics <<象棋戰術初步>> (ref 1) recommended

First created: Someday in 2011
Last updated: 9th Dec 2013

1)Mr Peter Sung for his invaluable help. is the url where the free ebooks can be downloaded at the WXF website.
2) Mr Harvey Blume for providing more material.
3) Mr Chris Hankinson for suggesting and explaining certain terms whilst discussing


1. <<象棋戰術初步>>Basics of Xiangqi Tactics by 李海鳴 林秦, Free Ebook found at the World Xiangqi Federation
2. <<象棋基本战术>> by 程明松. Approved by the Chinese Xiangqi Federation.
3. <<象棋入门>> by 刘国斌, 徐家亮, 韩宽 . Approved by the Chinese Xiangqi Federation.
4. <<象棋辞典>> by 屠景明, 杨柏玮
5. <<象棋入门>> by 马正福, 李浭
6. <<象棋入门>> by 朱宝位
7. <<象棋形势判断>> by 黄少龙   
8.<<象棋中局战法>> by 刘殿中 齐津安
9. <<象棋实战技法>> by 傅宝胜
10. <<象棋解危謀算>> by Master 尚威 Shang Wei

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